After a Break: Coming 2021

In April I hit pause. I needed time to reconsider how I write and I needed to configure a better writing schedule. I felt burnt out. I felt that I was cramming and trying to push through mental roadblock after mental roadblock without any real success or advancement. In the worst of times I hit […]

A Venture into Historical Fiction

Contemporaries knew Frederick Douglass as a resolute individual who freed himself from slavery and joined one of the most progressive movements in American history. His biting rhetoric, his stylistic prose, even the mere presence of his powerful being moved mountains in the fight for Black freedom. Today, the world notes Douglass’s power and stature at […]

UNESCO in Virginia, 1619

Fort Monroe, UNESCO Designation In 1994, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) launched a global movement memorializing and commemorating landscapes of resistance, liberty, and heritage in connection with slavery and the slave trade. Since 1994, UNESCO has designated over 50 sites and on February 19, 2021 another site received recognition; Fort Monroe, […]

Word’s Matter, “At their worst, they can incite.”

We live in a precarious moment in United States history. In 2020, we witnessed overtly racist language that demeaned non-white people in an attempt to protect American whiteness. Over the past four years, Donald Trump led the charge but GOP leaders, news outlets, numerous talking heads, and countless followers have commonly characterized a large Latino […]

Sand Creek Massacre

Role of a Historian – Sand Creek Massacre It is a given that ALL nations experience dark and difficult times. In modern history, German nationalists allowed Adolf Hitler to rise to power. In Chile, Augusto Pinochet, after grasping control of the government through a violent uprising, used the Estadio Nacional as a holding block, torture chamber, […]

“We are Defenceless Before Our Enemy” – Pt. II Perceptions and the Norfolk Riots

On April 16, 1866, African American marchers from Portsmouth and Norfolk were attacked while celebrating passage of the Civil Rights Bill. This peaceful action attracted a great amount of loathing from white onlookers who threw bricks, bottles, and hurled insults as the procession moved towards an open field near Nicholson Street and Church Street. At […]

“We Are Defenceless Before Our Enemy” – Pt. I

The map of Reconstruction is dotted with riots and massacres of all shapes and sizes. These epicenters of violence illustrate firm Southern reluctance to be reconstructed and forcibly reintegrated back into the Federal Union with freedom and citizenship granted to approximately four million formerly enslaved African Americans. Southern whites acted out in actions of unashamed […]

Freedom along the Potomac River

Jim, or James Lawson, escaped his enslavement in December 1861 onboard the Freeborn, a Union vessel patrolling the Potomac River, commanded by Lieutenant Samuel Magaw. Almost instantaneously Lawson became a scout and a spy for the United States military by furnishing Magaw with intelligence regarding Confederate positions and movements along the Potomac River and Confederate positions […]


Within the next day or two I will release a post about Jim (James) Lewis and his brief story along the Potomac River. I find James’ story fascinating not only for the individual courage embarked upon, but how his journey symbolizes the larger history of America.   Over the past 18 months I have taken a […]

American Independence: Seen through the Eyes of An American Slave.

American identity, as we know it today, is centered around momentous epochs. The Plymouth Rock landing and a conceptual framework mythicized by “city upon a hill” rhetoric; the Treaty of Versailles and America’s permanent place as a nation; Manifest Destiny and an imperialist mindset; abolition and citizenship; growth of women leaders through suffrage; and expansionism. […]

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